WHAT HAPPENED TO MISSING MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH370? - FAQ
Official Updates: Joint Agencies Coordination Center (JACC) * Malaysia Airlines * H2O Comms * DCA Official Newsroom * IHS Maritime - Live News Updates: LIVESTREAM COVERAGE CNN BREAKING NEWS * AIS Live Ship Tracking * #MH370 Twitter * WSJ Live Updates * The Guardian Live Coverage - News Coverage: CNN Full Coverage * New Straits Times Full Coverage * The Malay Online * Free Malaysia Today * China Xinhua News - Video Coverage: MH370 News Video's Astro Awani *

 
 
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Where to find Contact Information?

Family Support Centre (Toll-free number)
South China
10-800-130-1364
  North China
10-800-713-1404
  Malaysia
1800-81-4819
  Indonesia
001-803-015-203-7708
  Australia
1800-198-163
                 
US/Canada
877-504-4210
  New Zealand
080-045-4029
  France
080-091-2622
  India
000-800-100-3449
 

Family members may also get in touch with the centre at:
+603 8777 5770

For the passenger manifest of MH370 click here
For more documents click here

 

Press/Media Contact

Malaysia:
+603 8787 1276 
+603 8777 5698


The family support centres worldwide have been closed as of May 7 2014


How to get in touch with MH370 Families
MH370 Families @ Facebook

What information do i find @ MH370.bookofresearch.com


- Information about the plane, a radar playback and investigation information: here
- A Timeline of Events since MH370 went missing: here
- A tribute to those who were on the plane and information: here
- Information about the satellite images and the sightings in the search: here
- You can search for MH370 on satellite images here
- An overview of the search area's, charts and information updated when available: here
- Live tracking of ships involved in the search and information and updates: here
- Released and related documents to MH370: here
- Overview of News, Updates, Official Statements, information and a newsvideo timeline: here
- A newsroom where you can read most of the media coverage in one place: here
- A page where you can read statements & updates of officials in one place: here
- Overview of the search at an interactive google map with information: here
- Research Notes made along the way to solve the mystery: here
- An overview on our previous info page: here
- The opportunity to share information, contributions, prayers, memoriam stories, comments, etc: here
- You can contact MH370.bookofresearch.com: here

- Frequently Asked Questions and Answers: here
(you are currently on this page)

 
 
Where to find official updates about MH370? | Overview here

OFFICIALS

Official Statements Malaysia Airlines

Malaysian Airlines Video Playlist
DCA Official Newsroom
Joint Agencies Coordination Center (JACC)
ATSB Newsroom
ATSB Aviation Safety - Investigation Report

Australian Department of Defence Video's
Australian Department of Defence News
Updates from Australian Maritiem Safety Authority (AMSA)
MH370 Media Kit (AMSA)
AMSA and ATSB MH370 media briefings (video's)
Air Accidents Investigation Branch (AAIB)
Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF) 
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation ( CSIRO)


Where to find the documents that have been released? here
An overview of the preliminary report that has been released on May 1 2014 here
 
Where to find news about MH370? | Overview here

NEWS & MEDIA - LIVE & FULL COVERAGE
TheMalayMailOnline
China Xinhua News
FreeMalaysiaToday
South China Morning Post
PostMetro MH370 Coverage | EN Translation
Astro Awani Full Coverage
WSJ Live Updates
The Guardian Live Coverage
Telegraph
CNN Flight 370 search
CNN Complete Coverage MH370
Mirror Live Updates
News Updates
Full coverage (google)
NewsList (twitter)
 

SOCIAL MEDIA
MH370/BookofresearchList (officials)
MH370/BookofresearchList(2) (all)
#MH370 Twitter
Airliners Aviation Forum
#Pray4MH370
#PrayForMH370
#MengenangMH370
#RememberingMH370
#MH370TributeWSJ
#MH370 FB List

 

 

LIVESTREAM
Click to watch CNN LIVE BREAKING NEWS (Livestream)
CNN LIVE
ABC News Live


  NEWS VIDEO Playlists
MH370 Video's Astro Awani
CNN Video Playlist Malaysian Airlines

Reuters Video Playlist Malaysia Missing Plane
BBC Video Playlist MH370
WJS Video Playlist Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370
Telegraph Video Playlist Malaysian Airlines Crash
SkyNews Video Playlist Missing Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370
SkyNews Video Playlist Flight MH370 The story so far
Overview live video's MH370

Where to see Press Conferences live or watch them back?

As they happen
(Livestream)
MH370 Video's - Astro Awani Coverage


Frequently asked questions - ATSB | MH370 @ ATSB


7th Arc Map _3June 14_large

 

How do you know MH370 is in the southern Indian Ocean?

All the evidence—based on independent analysis of satellite, radar and aircraft performance data from many international experts—indicates the aircraft entered the sea close to a long but narrow arc in the southern Indian Ocean. This arc has been the focus of the search efforts since late March. All future search operations will continue to take place in localised areas of the arc.

Why is the seventh satellite ‘handshake' or arc so important?

The seventh handshake was the last communications MH370 had with the satellite. The signal was a logon request from the aircraft. This is consistent with the satellite communication equipment on the aircraft powering up following a power interruption. The interruption in electrical supply is highly likely to have been caused by fuel exhaustion. In other words, we are confident the seventh handshake represents the area where the aircraft ran out of fuel before entering the ocean.

Has the search been suspended?

No. The ATSB is leading the continuing underwater search for MH370.

The current phase of the search operation involves three major stages:

  • reviewing all existing information and analysis to define a search zone of up to 60,000 square kilometres along the arc in the southern Indian Ocean
  • conducting a bathymetric survey to map the sea floor in the defined search area (underway)
  • contracting the specialist services required for a comprehensive search of the sea floor in that area (search to begin in August 2014).
How long will the current underwater search take?

It is expected that the underwater search of a defined 60,000 square kilometre zone will take up to 12 months to complete, although this will depend on such factors as weather conditions.

Who is analysing the satellite communications data? 

This work is being performed both independently and collaboratively by an international satellite communications group formed early in this search—this comprises staff from technical organisations and accident investigation agencies in the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia. This group is continuing to review and refine the satellite, radar and aircraft performance data to determine the most probable area where the aircraft entered the water.

 

Questions & Answers about Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 - Ask the Captain

The questions were answered by John Cox, a retired airline captain with U.S. Airways
that runs his own aviation safety consulting company, Safety Operating Systems.

Part 1

Question : What do you think happened to Malaysia Airlines flight 370?

- submitted by Cheryl, Florida

Answer : There is not enough information to determine the cause of the event. It is unprecedented in aviation history.

Q : As I submit this, the search for MH370 is ongoing, but it does appear that the plane's transponder was turned off at some point during the flight. What would be a legitimate reason for turning off the transponder? Why is it not permanently hard-wired to prevent it from being turned off?

-- Paul, Winneconne, Wis.

A : Transponders occasionally transmit erroneous data, causing a problem for the air traffic computers; it is then necessary to switch them off. On the ground, a transmitting transponder also causes problems for air traffic radar in some airports.

There has never been an incident like MH370, the actions and requirements that will be the result of it are just being discussed.

Q : What are your thoughts about the availability of flight data in real time, on services that are available to the general public? Could there be some security concerns?

- Felix Kneuper, Fort Stockton, TX

A : I do not believe there is a need for real time flight data. The events of Malaysian 370 have reignited this debate, but in my opinion there is not the justification of the expense. Furthermore, the legal ramifications are very serious and complex. The idea of having real time telemetry available to the general public would cause a degradation in safety, not an improvement.

Q : Is there a way that the passengers of the missing Malaysian plane never knew what was going on? Is there a reason why no one on board placed a phone call or sent a text?

- Jane Ehnot, Oaks, Pa.

A : There are no cell towers where the airplane was, making calls or text messages impossible. We do not know what occurred on Malaysian 370, so it is impossible to know what the passengers knew during the flight.

Q : Why would anyone take a 777 to 45,000 feet, unless his goal was to depressurize and therefore neutralize all passengers and other crew?

- Chuck B, Silicon Valley CA

A : There is conflicting information on whether the 777 actually did climb to 45,000 feet. Until better data is available, any answer to your question would be speculation.

Q : Could flight MH370 fly out into space?

- Alan, Brisbane

A : No, conventional airplanes cannot fly into space.


Part 2

Question : With 150 observation satellites orbiting the earth, don't you find it incredible that nobody saw anything?

-- Submitted by Randy Allen

Answer : I find the entire mystery incredible. There has never been anything like this in aviation's history. However, I remain confident investigators will find it and the cause will be determined.

READ MORE: Previous reader questions about Malaysia Airlines 370

Q : Why have we not heard of any "sightings" from American satellites? I would have assumed we have the best in the world that supposedly can see a grapefruit from orbit.

-- John, N.C.

A : The public has not seen all the information provided to the investigators. Whether the U.S. satellites have been involved is not known at this time.

Q : Given the lack of floating debris from flight MH370, would it have been possible to have landed the plane on the ocean and then sunk it?

-- Dave, Stoke, England

A : No, the idea of landing the 777 on the water in open ocean is very unlikely. It has never been done. It is far more likely that it struck the water and broke apart at impact.

Q : Wouldn't the plane crashing into the ocean leave mass wreckage floating on top of ocean?

-- Jessica, Prescott, Ariz.

A : Yes, this is one of the great mysteries. Previously there has always been floating debris. The likelihood is that there was with this event too. Where is it?

Q : If the B-777 is pretty much intact, how would anyone ever get the boxes out of the airplane if they are bolted down to the floor?

- Phil, St. Petersburg Fla.

A : The 777 can't be intact, due to impact with the water. In an open ocean with waves, airplanes break up on impact.

Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROVs) can cut metal and retrieve the recorders. It is difficult but possible.

Q : Should the battery life of black boxes be extended to one year and the "ping" be louder and transmitted further?

- Howard Steinhardgt, Brooklyn, N.Y.

A : There is regulation underway to increase the time of the acoustic transmitters from 30 to 90 days. This should be sufficient. A year would be excessive in my opinion. Increasing the transmission power is under discussion and may be implemented. Remember, never before has such an event happened.

Q : Are there any similarities from what happened to Air France 447 back in 2009?

- Jarrod M Strongsville, Ohio

A : No, the situation was much different. There was no weather, there was no upload of malfunctions, and there was no loss of airspeed indication. The only similarity was that both were wide body jets with outstand safety records flying over the ocean at night. Beyond that the similarities stop.

Part 3

Question : If my uncle's iPhone can locate planes flying at this very moment, how is it that military equipment that costs billions of dollars cannot find the missing Malaysia Airlines flight?

- Submitted by Gilead Wright, Fabens, Texas

Answer : Your uncle's iPhone uses flight-tracking software utilizing radar and transponders. In the case of MH370, the airplane flew beyond radar coverage, thereby eliminating radar as a tracking device. The military equipment was used to the maximum extent possible by the investigators but did not provide evidence of the location.

Q : Do you think this could be like the Air France 447 case?

-- Cassidy Ryan, flight attendant, Montana

A : No, the situation was much different. There was no weather, there was no upload of malfunctions, and there was no loss of airspeed indication. The only similarity was that both were widebody jets with outstanding safety records flying over the ocean at night. Beyond that the similarities stop.

Q : Could the plane have flown farther by turning off one engine?

-- Chuck—Dayton, Ohio

A : Jets do not gain range by shutting down an engine. The drag of the lower altitude and lower speed more than offsets the decrease in the rate of fuel burn.

Q : Captain Cox, love your columns. A follow-up on a question you answered regarding whether a 777 could make a water landing. Please explain why the aircraft piloted by Capt. Sully landed on the water in New York and this one could not.

-- Rod

A : The river in New York was very calm the day that Captain Sullenberger landed. I do not think in an open ocean with significant swells, a large jet could land with minimal damage. I am aware of a DC-9 that landed in the open ocean several years ago, but it incurred substantial damage and sank quickly.

Q : I live near one of the searched oceans, what should I look for on the beach?

-- Robert, Kuantan, Malaysia

A : I would keep an eye out for seat cushions or other unusual items. If you see any such items, please report it to the local police.

Q : Should the search go on?

-- Anon

A : Yes, aviation does not accept unanswered mysteries well.

 

MH370: How do underwater sonar subs work?


-

How does the underwater vehicle work?

The Bluefin-21 is a probe equipped with side-scan sonar, or acoustic technology that creates pictures from the reflections of sound instead of light.

The device sends a pulse that produces a three-dimensional map of the seafloor, according to the U.S. Navy. An operator on the surface programs the vehicle, which is owned and operated by Phoenix International, a marine services contractor.

"When it reaches the appropriate depth, it will turn on its sensors," said David Kelly, the president and CEO of manufacturer Bluefin Robotics.

"It will then run what's called the lawn mower pattern, which is a series of parallel lines or tracks, where it will go back and forth just like mowing your lawn."

Where will it be launched?

The Bluefin-21 will be launched in the most probable area of the pings that were detected by the Australian ship Ocean Shield.

From there, it will plunge to a depth of 4,000 to 4,500 meters (2.5 miles) -- roughly 35 meters above the ocean floor, the U.S. Navy said.

"It operates at a height above the bottom optimized for its sensors," Kelly said.

How fast and how far will the vehicle go?

The Bluefin-21's first mission will cover about 40 square kilometers (3.1 miles by 4.9 miles). It'll probably take anywhere from six weeks to two months to scan the entire search area, the U.S. Navy said.

That's because the vehicle crawls at the pace of a leisurely stroll, said Sylvia Earle, an oceanographer from National Geographic who was chief scientist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

But the Bluefin-21 does create good images -- so good that they are "almost a picture of what's there ... but it's imaged with sound instead of with a camera."

What kind of terrain will it have to deal with?

The bottom of the search area is not sharply mountainous -- it's more flat and almost rolling, Australian chief search coordinator Angus Houston said.

But he said the bottom of the area probably has a lot of silt, which can "complicate" the search.

Houston cautioned against beliefs that the underwater vehicle will find wreckage.

"It may not," he said. "This will be a slow and painstaking process."

When can we learn what the Bluefin-21 sees?

The vehicle has a 24-hour cycle, so it can be deployed only once a day. And no information will be available until the end of each cycle, Houston said.

It will take two hours for the Bluefin-21 to get down to the search area. Then it will scour the ocean bed for 16 hours and take another two hours to resurface. After that, it will take another four hours to download and analyze the data collected, Houston said.

"The rate of information flow is certainly going to be a little bit more than a day apart," Matthews said.

What happens after the pingers die?

What happens if and when debris is found?

Once the debris field is found, other equipment -- such as remotely operated vehicles -- would be brought in to recover the black boxes, Earle said.

ROVs working at depths of 3 miles would require power conveyed down a cable from a ship above, said. "There are not many pieces of equipment in the world able to do this."

And only a handful of countries have manned submarines capable of descending to such depths -- such as the United States, Russia, Japan, France and China, she said.

Why haven't they found any debris yet?

It's actually not that surprising, said CNN aviation analyst David Soucie, author of "Why Planes Crash."

The model used for tracking the debris could be incorrect, Soucie said. He said that was the case when investigators were searching for evidence of Air France Flight 447, which plunged into the southern Atlantic Ocean in 2009, killing all 228 people aboard.

"They spent weeks looking for debris in the wrong area," he said.

The lack of debris could also mean that the plane did not break apart on impact, but instead sank largely intact, he said.

If that was the case, it could complicate the effort to retrieve the black boxes, since they were stored inside the tail of the plane. Investigators would have to dismantle the tail in order to extract them and whatever secrets they may hold.

We heard pings last week. Will the towed pinger locators be used again?

Probably not. The plane's black boxes were expected to ping for only about 30 days, and Monday marks Day 38 of the search.

The towed pinger locator and the Bluefin-21 are hosted by the same Australian ship, and only one device at a time can search underwater, Houston said.

And because no new pings had been detected in the past six days, officials have pulled up the pinger locator in order to send down the unmanned vehicle. Houston said it's unlikely the pinger locator will rejoin the search.

What do we know about the oil slick?

On Sunday night, the Australian ship Ocean Shield found an oil slick about 5.5 kilometers (3.4 miles) downwind from where the pings were detected.

A 2-liter sample was collected for analysis. But it could take a few days to transfer that sample to a task force ship, bring it closer to shore, send it by helicopter to Perth, Australia, and then take it to a lab, Royal Australia Navy Capt. Brett Sampson said.

Will the mystery of Flight 370 be solved once the data recorders are found?

Not necessarily. The voice recorders retain only the last two hours of recordings. And, since officials believe Flight 370 flew almost seven hours beyond the point where something went terribly wrong, crucial data have almost certainly been erased.

On the positive side, the depletion of the battery will not wipe out data. Data has been known to survive years in harsh sea water conditions on modern recorders.

(CNN)

INTERACTIVE: The search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

READ: Listen for a ping, and the water may play tricks on you

What can Investigators Learn From MH-370 Radio Communications? Source


1. The actual words spoken (using enhancement and digital slowing)

2. Identity of speaker (very brief samples, useful if two voices are different in tone, inflection, speed of    speech, accent)

3. Possible emotion state of crew (whether calm or excited)(can hear deep breaths in cases of anxiety)

4. Voice(s) steady or wavering from vibration of aircraft

5. Additional voices (from other pilot's mic or in background)

6. Any alarms sounding (various instruments emit unique alarm sounds to alert crew to various conditions)

7. Condition of on-board power supply from analysis of hum component of signal by spectrographic analysis

8. Condition of radio (distorted or clear, weak or strong audio)

What can Investigators Learn From MH-370 Cockpit Voice Recorder? Source


The cockpit voice recorder generally has four voice channels: pilot, co-pilot, CAM (cockpit area microphone) and intercom.

All of the information described above, applies, along with the added intelligence from each of the channels.

Investigators use all of the channels to identify all spoken words, and cockpit sounds during an investigation.

Assuming the proper installation and alignment of the Cockpit Voice Recorder (CVR) one can even identify directionality of various cockpit sounds, as in the case of a malfunctioning engine on one side of the aircraft. And identification of speakers is definite because pilot and co-pilot are recorded in separate channels.

Engine sounds can pinpoint when throttle is increased or decreased.

Alarm sounds are audible, as is the sound of a stick-shaker, for example, in the case of an impending stall.

Pinger location using forensic enchangement techniques ProAudioLabs
 
 

 

 

 

 

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